Articles on Career Development

Organizational Career Development

Employees are career conscious and will stick to an organization where they feel that they have an opportunity to showcase their talent. Career development is a continuous process where both employees as well as employers have to put efforts in order to create conducive environment.

Importance of Career Development

The process of organizational career development is important for both employees and employers. There may be several unintended and undesired changes as well as consequences that can change the entire scenario.

Designing Career Development Systems

In order to have effective career development attempts by the organizations, designing automated career development systems plays a crucial role as it integrates a series of activities related to individual career planning and organizational career management.

Benefits of Career Development System

Career development programs are most effective when they are integrated with the organizations ongoing training and development strategies. Lets understand the benefits of a career development system in detail.

Components of Career Development

A career development system includes a variety of components for use in the organizations. Let us understand the tools and activities to learn in-depth about career development system.

Objectives of Career Development

Career development has become primary activity of organizations in order to create a pool of talented employees as well as enhance their career satisfaction. Lets discuss the Objectives of Career Development Systems.

Career Development Issues in Teams

There are lot of issues surrounding career development of an individual. Issues like - the selection procedures, designing the training programs, the appraisal systems and rewards and recognition.

Mentoring and Career Development

Mentoring is a process of developing formal relationships between junior and senior members of the organisation, in certain cases mentoring also takes place between peers.

Career Management

Career management is conscious planning of ones activities and engagements in the jobs one undertakes in the course of his life for better fulfilment and growth.

Career Program Effectiveness

In todays world, when there is so much to explore and achieve, career programs simply cant afford to be static. They need continuous development and evolvement of themselves and reach new heights.

Implications of Workplace Changes

In order to strike a balance with continuous workplace changes, both employees and organizations have to come to the mutually beneficial terms so that both can meet their requirements and future aspirations.

Organizational Assessment Programs

The purpose of organization assessment programs is to evaluate the potential of employees for growth and development within the organization. Lets discuss the various organizational assessment programs.

Benefits of Formal Succession Planning

Succession planning is one of the most important career development tools. Formal succession planning deals with preparing the employees at lower levels to handle the responsibilities of next higher levels

Career Programs for Special Groups

There are several different groups in an organization including Fast-track Employees, entrenched employees, supervisors, executives, new employees, etc. Depending upon the group, the activities and workshops included in a program also changes accordingly.

Hiring Couples & Relocation Assistance

Couples prefer working in the same city once they get married and in rarest of the rare cases they are willing to move. Some large scale organizations, popularly known as people developers have already begun offering relocation assistance to their employees.

Career Personality Tests

A career personality test aims on finding at what a particular individual is best at and for what types of jobs he or she will be suitable.

Career Ladders and Career Paths

Career Ladders are part of the information services which in turn is a component of the career development systems. The process of chalking the career path is beneficial to both the employees and the organisation.

Employment Counselling

Employment counselling is an attempt to determine individuals interests, desires, aspirations and skills and competencies in various occupations and jobs.

Invest in Yourself Continuously

This article discusses some tips on self-improvement that can be followed by anyone wishing to make a mark in the professional world. The key theme of this article is that investing in oneself should start early and continue throughout ones career.

Role of Organization in Self Improvement

Organizations plays a very important role in motivating its employees to continuously improve themselves. Lets look in detail about the role of organizations in self improvement of its employees.

Role of Mentors in Career Development

This article discusses an important aspect of business school life and careers in the corporate world which is the element of having mentors to guide us through these life stages. The key theme that is being discussed in this article is that having the right kind of mentor makes a lot of difference between success and failure in ones career and by extension, ones life.

Some Tips for Fresh Graduates

This article discusses some tips for management graduates appearing for placement interviews. The key theme in this article is that the goal of any management graduate must be to ace the placement interviews and for this, they need to build their profile right from the time they enter the portals of the business schools.

Tips for Graduates Entering Corporates

Getting the first job is like falling in love for the first time. Hence, there are both benefits and drawbacks of the experience and this article takes you through some of the aspects that you need to know when you are embarking on your career. The key theme in this article is that the collegiate mindset must be discarded when you begin your career and instead, a professional approach must be adopted that is not only ethical but also characterized by strict compliance to all the rules and regulations of the company.

What do Recruiters look for ?

This article discusses what recruiters look for in management graduates. The key theme of this article is that a well-rounded profile and consistent academic record apart from focus on niches and being better than the others are key aspects that would place one at an advantage over others.

Tips for New Employees

Being in a new job brings in lot of apprehensions, anxiety, and dos and donts. Here is what should be done after getting a new job.

Changing Jobs Mid-Career

This article discusses some aspects of changing jobs mid-career. The key theme in this article is that mid career, moves are worthwhile and fulfilling, and hence, they must be approached with hard rational decision-making accompanied by an approach that is driven by gut feelings and intuition.

Executive Management Programs

This article discusses the positives and negatives of attending the executive management programs that are being offered by many business schools in Asian countries. The key theme in this article is that aspiring managers and attendees of these executive programs must be realistic about their chances when they enroll for the programs.

Niche Management Programs

This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of enrolling in a niche program like the postgraduate programs in systems that are offered by many leading business schools. The article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of graduating from an institute that is known for particular niches.

Business Schools in the West & East

This article discusses the key differences between the business schools in the West and the East. The article lists some points that can help aspiring students to decide on studying in the West or in the East.

Reinvent Yourself During Your Career

This article discusses the need to reinvent oneself continually throughout one’s life and career. The key theme in this article is that chance favors the prepared mind and hence, it is always better to stay ahead of the curve by anticipating the trends and sensing which way the wind is blowing.

Tips to Prepare for the Future

It is essential for an individual to prepare not only for his/her present but also for the future. Let us go through few tips to prepare for the future.

Preparing Employees for the Future

Management plays an important role in helping employees to prepare for the future. Lets discuss the various ways in which management can help employees to prepare for their future.

The Importance of Networking

This article discusses the importance of networking for students and professionals. The key theme in this article is that networking yields good returns for everyone as long as it is kept ethical and free from practices that involve trying to persuade ones connections to do something unethical.

Industry Academia Collaborations

This article discusses the industry academia collaborations that add value to both the partners. The key theme in this article is that the industry academia collaboration is a win-win situation for both and that countries like China and India must learn from the West and the US in particular where a number of game changing ideas have come from such partnership.

Choosing the Right Business School

This article discusses the process of choosing the right business school and the kind of major that you want to graduate in. The key theme in this article is that business school education is all about preparing ones profile made of several elements and hence, aspiring management graduates have to start the task of building one’s profile from the time one sets foot in the business school.

Choosing Electives & Optional Courses

This article discusses some strategies that you can use when choosing electives and optional courses. The key themes that are explored in this article are that choosing electives and optional courses is a process that would determine your subsequent career, and therefore build your profile accordingly, stay close to your core competence, and develop as well rounded a profile as possible.

Strategies for Professionals

This article discusses how working professionals and graduates entering careers can deal with the current gloomy economic conditions. The key theme in this article is that when the economy is tanking, it is always wiser to save and perform a cost benefit analysis on your inflows and outflows of money.

How to Develop a Long Term Perspective

This article discusses the tendency to live for the present and forget about investing for the future that has become a characteristic of modern day lives. The key themes that are explored in this article are to do with how businesses and individuals tend to be carried away by the promise of the present and forget the perils of the future.

Summer Internships in Business Schools

This article discusses how summer internships work in business schools. The key themes discussed in this article are about how summer internships provide a valuable opportunity for the students to convert them into pre placement offers as well as check whether their profile matches the requirements of the companies. Further, the article also discusses how summer internships in NGOs add perspective to the students.

Rising Cost of Student Education

This article discusses the rising costs of student education especially for management courses and the prospects for jobs after graduation. The key theme in this article is that students are being hit with a double whammy of rising costs and expensive loans and on the other hand, they are not getting high paying jobs or jobs of their choice upon graduation.

Lowering the Education Costs in America

This article compares the education system in America to that of Germany, France, Sweden and other European countries. It explains how some of the practices can be adopted by those countries in order to lower the level of student debt.

Top MBA Colleges in India

Here is the list of top 10 MBA Colleges in India.

Role of Personal Development in Career Growth

Personal development plays a crucial role in ones career growth. It makes you a confident and mature professional. Personal development is imperative not only for career growth but also for mere survival in the organization.

Steps in Personal Development Planning Process

Personal development is no rocket science and one really needs to have patience and believe in oneself. Let us go through various steps in the whole process of personal development planning.

Executive Management Programs and Part Time Management Programs

This article discusses the trend of working professionals enrolling in executive management programs and part time management programs. The key themes in this article are that it would be better for prospective entrants to perform a SWOT Analysis and a cost benefit analysis as well as doing their due diligence on the institutes offering such programs.

For those Nearing their Forties: How to Plan for your Second Half of Career and Life ?

This article discusses the strategies that can be followed by those who are nearing forty years of age or those who have just crossed forty. The Generation Xers who have been hit during the Dotcom Crash of 2000 and the Great Recession of 2008 need to understand that before they venture into secondary careers, they need to ensure that they have provided for their families.

Lateral Placements and Some Strategies for those with Work Experience in Business Schools

This article discusses the strategies that laterals or those with work experience who are pursuing a management education can follow. The key theme in this article is that laterals that focus on their niches and concentrate on their specializations that leverage their work experience are likely to succeed than those with skewed priorities.

Why Professionals and Students Must Invest in Specialized Skills

This article can be considered as peering into the future of jobs in the west and the east with the latest round of automation leading to many hitherto secure jobs being replaced by machines and robots. Though the article is not meant to be alarmist, nonetheless it is a good wake up call for the professionals in their early stages of their careers and for students who want to understand how their skills would be used in the coming years.

Skills are a Key Ingredient of Success in Contemporary Organizations

This article discusses the importance of the various types of skills and the settings in which you can acquire them as well as use them. The key theme in this article is that one must prepare a personal SWOT matrix and use it to plan one’s career in an objective manner. Further, this article also makes a strong pitch for the combination of competitive mindset and the ability to be emotionally intelligent and we stress the importance of attitude above everything else.

How to Deal with Envy at Workplace ?

Envy at work is not easy to be dealt with. The article discusses some of the most effective ways of dealing with envy at workplace.

Career Choices for the Present Times

This article examines some career choices that are relevant to the present times especially when the full time jobs are becoming scarce and on the other hand, startups are attracting millions of dollars in funding. Each of the options would be analyzed based on the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing them.

Impact of the Slowdown on those beginning their careers

This article examines the problem of joblessness and the impact of the ongoing economic slowdown on those beginning their careers. The key themes in this article are that all stakeholders such as the government, the private sector, and the young graduates at all levels of society and government as well as industry must work together in a collective manner to meet the objectives of job creation and gainful employment.

Skilling the Workforce to Make them Employable and Contribute to Economic Growth

This article examines the need for countries to have skilled workforces wherein the workers of tomorrow are not only measured in quantity or the size of the workforce but also in the manner in which the quality of their skills and education is determined. In other words, the key theme in this article is that it is simply not enough to churn out millions of graduates if they are unemployable and hence, this article discusses how countries such as India can achieve this.

What is LinkedIn and Why Having a Linked in Profile is Important

In the present professional world which is characterized by cut-throat competition and increasing complexities of a job, LinkedIn can be used a vital tool for personal branding and connecting with the professional network. This article provides a comprehensive coverage on the importance of being registered on a professional networking site LinkedIn. It explains the need for having an impressively developed LinkedIn profile and how it can benefit the professionals by strengthening their connections, participating in social conversations and group activities, provide visibility on the social platform and improve opportunities by appearing in the recruiter’s search very often.

How to Use the Summary Section in LinkedIn and Describe Your Experiences

The summary section is important, be it in a resume or on LinkedIn. As this is the first thing which will attract people’s eyes, it should be emphasized. And if this section is weak, chances are there that the rest of the profile can go unnoticed. It is the summary section in LinkedIn which will help in creating long lasting first impressions and as a potential job applicant one should make the maximum out of it for impressing the recruiters by presenting a strong and genuine picture of yourself and describing all your significant accomplishments across the career.

How to Manage Skills and Endorsements on Linkedin

As Linkedin is a professional networking site, it has offered many features. An “Endorsement” is one of them which allows your connections to validate your skills. If we go by the basic meaning of Endorsement, it suggests authorization or ratification or simply giving your approval to someone or something. Let’s see some of the thoughts about LinkedIn endorsements and how to manage them.

Gathering Recommendations and Getting Endorsed

The article provides detail coverage on the importance of getting endorsements and recommendations on LinkedIn. A description is provided on how the endorsements and recommendations differ from each other, and the role both play in providing you a competitive edge by enhancing your credibility through validation of the skills which you possess and written testimonials from your connections. The article further proposes best practices and strategies for gathering recommendations from your connections and its effectiveness in providing you a different edge in the talent competition.

Joining Groups on Linkedin

This article offers a detailed coverage on the importance of joining LinkedIn groups and how groups can help in gaining access to connecting with a larger networker as well as interacting with people of similar backgrounds for professional opportunities as well as latest developments in the field of specialization. The article provides eye-opening insights on the essential do’s and do not’s related with joining of LinkedIn groups, the relative advantages which it offers and how an individual can make the best use of LinkedIn group as a platform for brighter and better avenues.

How to Project Yourself as a Brand by Using Strong Keywords and Updating the Profile Periodically

This article offers insights on how LinkedIn can serve as a powerful platform for branding and recommends effective strategies for establishing a strong brand image and achieving a competitive edge over others. Emphasis is given on creating a unique value proposition which one can offer and the usage of keywords in the profile for communicating the right message to the right set of audience for realizing the strategic objectives. Moreover, coverage is provided on the importance of updating the profile periodically and enhancing connections by joining groups and improving the online presence.

Do’s and Don’ts of LinkedIn

As we know that LinkedIn is a professional networking platform, there are some etiquettes that need to be followed. This article unveils information about various do’s and don’ts associated with the usage of LinkedIn, which if ignored might not result in successful outcomes or promote your desired visibility.

What is Group Discussion and How is it Different from a Debate

The article offers a comprehensive understanding about Group Discussion and also how is it different with a Debate. Coverage is provided on how GD’s assess one’s potential and the key skills which are being evaluated by the selectors during a GD. The articles provide insights on the essential pre-requisites which should be kept in mind during the actual GD process for gaining a winning edge over the counterparts.

Objectives of Conducting a Group Discussion

This article attempts to highlight information about the major areas of evaluation which is involved in a selection GD. A Group Discussion tries to assess the following strengths of an individual: Subject knowledge, Oral Communication skills, Leadership and Team Management Qualities. Coverage is provided for the key purposes which can be served from a GD and the benefits of a Group Discussion in the present scenario.

Importance of Active Listening and Asking Clarifications in a Group Discussion

This article describes the importance practicing active listening skills during a GD and asking clarifications for gathering insights or perspectives on the topic which is under discussion.

Non Verbal Cues and its Importance in Group Discussion

This article provides an eye-opening coverage on the importance of non-verbal communication, eye contact and use of appropriate and an open body language during the process of a Group Discussion. A description is provided on all the factors which play a determining role during a GD apart from usage of strong communication skills to demonstrate the subject matter knowledge and expertise in the field of discussion.

Phases in a Group Discussion: Introduction, Central Group Discussion and Summarization

This article offers a description of the various phases involved in a Group Discussion and the strategies which can be adopted during different phases of a Group Discussion for achieving win-win solutions. The article provides effective tips and prerequisites for successfully handling the discussion in various phases and also presents an overview of the various challenges involved in different stages of a Group Discussion.

Role of Participants in a Group Discussion

This article provides a brief coverage on the various roles played by the participants in a GD and their relative importance in bringing out meaningful insights by participating in the discussion. The article explains how the different categories of participants with differing abilities and competencies, can contribute to a discussion and evolve newer perspectives, brainstorm ideas and recommend interesting solutions to a problem with supportive facts and evidence for deriving a sensible and a plausible conclusion.

How Open Minded are You in a Group Discussion

The article provides informative insights on the importance of maintaining an open-minded approach at the time of a Group Discussion. There are various personality traits from which the candidates’ open-mindedness can be assessed.

Student Loans and the Rising Cost of Useless Degrees

This article provides a reality check regarding the viability of student loans. It explains why a lot of the student loans are simply bad investments. The article also provides a framework for evaluating student loans and making a sound financial decision.

Problem of Unsustainable Student Debt and How to Manage it ?

Student debt is fast becoming unsustainable and on the way to causing the next financial crisis. Indeed, the problem of student debt is such that unless addressed, it would likely snowball into a full-blown crisis threatening the future of the United States. Taking this as the starting point, this article discusses ways and means of addressing the problem of student debt from multiple perspectives.

Some Things to Consider When Choosing Off-Beat or Non-Mainstream Careers

In recent years, many Millennials have been opting for hitherto nonmainstream and offbeat career options. What was once considered the preserve of the privileged class now finds many others flocking to Aviation, Services, Media, and Hospitality sectors as career choices. Having said that, there are some downsides to these careers as well, and this article discusses the attraction of these careers to Millennials along with listing some downsides and also, offering some suggestions for aspiring graduates.

The Dilemma Facing Students and Professionals: Generalization or Specialization ?

Most students face the dilemma between going in for a specialized degree and acquiring a generalized education. Indeed, this is the dilemma that if not resolved carefully can lead to future growth being impeded. Thus, this article offers some suggestions on how to choose between specialization and generalization based on some decision criteria that are explained in detail in the discussion.

Tips for Professionals on Making Smart Career Moves during your Working Life

This article examines how fresh graduates, as well as middle managerial professionals and senior managers, can make smart career moves by factoring in multiple drivers that can be made into a decision matrix that can guide them. The different factors and aspects that determine career moves are discussed in detail in this article.

Tips and Suggestions for Those Wishing to Enter Creative Professions

The stereotype of writers and artists as struggling souls has been replaced with smart, creative personalities marketing themselves and earning huge money as a result. Thus, if you are a writer, artist, actor, designer, or any of the other creative types, do not hesitate from making a full time living from your passions. Indeed, there are opportunities aplenty for all those creative guys who can choose to be either a freelancer or a full time professional. We offer some suggestions and tips for those who are wishing to make a career from their creative talents.

Why Aspiring and Working Professionals Must Learn to Balance Ambition with Realism

While it is good to be ambitious, one must also be realistic about oneself. Apart from this, no matter how good you are, there are external limits such as recessions and downturns that can set you back. Therefore, it is essential to perform a SWOT Analysis of where you stand and how external circumstances are. In all this, we suggest that you be honest with yourself and be cautiously optimistic without being pessimistic.

Career Advice for Those Over 40: Averting a Midlife Crisis and Finding Meaning in Work

We often hear the term Midlife Crisis and how it stalks those over 40. In this article, we explore the many sides of this and present some options by which it can be dealt with. Further, we also suggest some solutions to averting a Midlife Crisis and recommend those over 40 to rejuvenate and revitalize themselves and find meaning and purpose in their careers. Lastly, this article ends with how Generation X (those in their 40s) are now taking over from the older generations and hence, calls them to rise to the occasion.

Current Employment Trends and Their Implications for Business, Society, and Individuals

The world of work is changing. Stable, secure, and lifelong employment is no longer guaranteed. In addition, business leaders are actively encouraging part time and Gig work. Further, the governmental policymakers are also moving towards reduction or even elimination of pensioner and healthcare benefits. All these trends mean that both aspiring and working professionals should be prepared for uncertainty and instability in the future. Without sounding dire, we suggest some strategies that you can adopt to face the future.

Some Investment Lessons and Advice for Professionals in the Age of the Gig Economy

With the emergence of the Gig Economy or the Freelancing economy, professionals can no longer count on secure and full time jobs to be the norm. In addition, recent economic trends suggest that despite the booming economies worldwide, those at the middle and lower ends are seeing their real incomes and wage growth slowing or declining. Moreover, there are signs that another economic crisis is in the works. Thus, this article recommends some investment lessons and strategies based on expert views for professionals to have a safety net when the next crisis strikes.

Designing and Implementing an Effective Work from Home Policy

With remote work becoming the norm and with research indicating that nearly half of all workers in major corporations having availed of work from home arrangements, it is high time that organizations design an effective work from home policy as well as rigorously implement it. This article examines this theme from multiple perspectives by discussing the need to balance personal commitments with the professional obligations. Apart from that, this article also recommends designing a work from home policy that satisfies all stakeholders and not only the employees or the employers alone.

How Self Learning can help you be Ahead of the Curve in a Fast Changing World

Self learning is fast emerging as a potent method of staying ahead of the skills and knowledge curve. Further, self learning can be quite useful to move up the knowledge value chain. In addition, self learning can be used in conjunction with classroom based learning. Apart from this, the fact that knowledge is becoming obsolete every few years means that working professionals have no choice but to keep learning constantly. This is where self learning plays a key role.

Why Reskilling Might be the Solution to Avoiding Job Losses from Automation and Robots

With the dawning of the Machine Age or the Fourth Industrial Revolution, it needs systemic efforts to address the challenges of this new era. Indeed, widespread job losses and layoffs due to automation and robots taking over the humans is a possibility. These calls for Reskilling of the workforce to ensure workers and professionals remain competitive in the Age of the Machines. This article examines what Reskilling in and what are some of the steps that business leaders, governmental policymakers, civil society stakeholder, and the workers themselves can take to ensure that the disruption caused by the present changes is minimized and addressed.

The Need for Professionals and Experts to be Independent in Highly Polarized Times

The highly polarized and charged times we live in present challenges for experts and professionals to maintain their independence. When ideals do not fill one’s stomach, it is more the reason for the media and the experts to fall in line rather than stand up. Having said that, there is a point where the system rebalances and corrects itself, and hence, this article examines the pros and cons of remaining independent and true to one’s principles. Apart from that, this article also argues that the prevailing capitalist and free market democratic system has an inbuilt logic for survival and continuity rather than collapse or decay.

Income Sharing Agreement: An Answer to Student Debt?

This article introduces the concept of income sharing arrangements. It explains the concept in details before listing the pros and cons of this new model of financing.

Transitioning From College to the Corporate World: Challenges and Approaches

The real world is very different from what is taught in business schools. Having said that, most business schools do prepare their students for the real world challenges. However, there are some gaps that management students must make the effort to bridge and overcome the challenges. This is where some approaches to transitioning to the corporate world come in handy. This article examines some such approaches that management students can adopt when making the shift from a business school to the corporate world. Using examples from our experience, we apply theory to practice.

Should Corporates Make Work from Home Arrangements Permanent or Temporary?

With WFH or Work from Home becoming the New Normal, this article considers whether corporates must make it permanent or revert to office working once the Pandemic is controlled. We examine the pros and cons and suggest some strategies that can be adopted by the corporates to navigate the present exigencies. We also predict that WFH is here to stay and that the long heralded Digital Age is upon us.

How the Covid Pandemic has altered the Notions of Work, Education, and Employment

This article examines the changes in Work, Education, and Employment brought about due to the New Normal and argues that these changes that have been anyway being implemented due to the Digital Transformations have been accelerated due to the Pandemic. We make a case for embracing such changes with confidence and courage and predict that the New Normal is likely to persist for the foreseeable future.

HRM Strategies for the Post Covid Era and the New Normal of Virtual Workplaces

This article examines how HRM or Human Resources Management has to evolve to meet the challenges of the Post Covid Era. Covering all activities of the HR Function as well as detailing the New Approaches needed, we list how HR Managers have to Adapt and Adjust to the New Normal. We also touch upon the Legal and Administrative imperatives that are changing with the Covid times.

What is Career Path Mapping and Why Organizations Gain from Mapping Career Paths

This article explains what a Career Path or a Career Map is and why they are important. Using real world examples and theoretical concepts, we illustrate the advantages and pitfalls of having or not having specific career paths for employees. In addition, we explain how lateral and horizontal career shifts happen and why some senior professionals often follow their passions and how organizations can address this aspect also.

Does Academic Excellence Guarantee Professional Success or It Just Gives a Head Start?

It is often thought that good grades are enough to succeed in later life. Indeed, our entire Merit Based Model is built on this assumption. However, we argue that academic excellence, while necessary, is not sufficient to predict later life professional success. We use real world examples to show that academic excellence provides a head start only and hence, we need a new approach to predicting professional success.

Why the Future of Learning is Virtual and How to Prepare for Online Education Models

This article makes the case for online learning and suggests some steps that governments, corporates, colleges and universities in addition to online educational portals can take to mainstream virtual pedagogy. We argue that there needs to be a Paradigm Shift in our thinking and approach to leap into the Future. We also use the example of this portal to show how this shift can be actualized.

The Myth of the 8 Hour Workday! Why we need a New Approach to Productivity

This article explains why the standard measures of productivity no longer suffice and argues that being a relic of the First Industrial Revolution and the Manufacturing Age, the 8 hour workday is a myth as far as Services firms are concerned. Moreover, we also make a case for new measures of productivity with the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the Digital Age and most importantly, when Work from Home has become the norm.

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