Theory X and Theory Y
In 1960, Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behaviour at work, or in other words, two different views of individuals (employees):
According to McGregor, the perception of managers on the nature of individuals is based on various assumptions.
Assumptions of Theory X
Assumptions of Theory Y
Thus, we can say that Theory X presents a pessimistic view of employees nature and behaviour at work, while Theory Y presents an optimistic view of the employees nature and behaviour at work. If correlate it with Maslows theory, we can say that Theory X is based on the assumption that the employees emphasize on the physiological needs and the safety needs; while Theory X is based on the assumption that the social needs, esteem needs and the self-actualization needs dominate the employees.
McGregor views Theory Y to be more valid and reasonable than Theory X. Thus, he encouraged cordial team relations, responsible and stimulating jobs, and participation of all in decision-making process.
Implications of Theory X and Theory Y
- Classical Theories of Motivation
- Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory
- Herzbergs Theory of Motivation
- Modern Theories of Motivation
- ERG Theory
Authorship/Referencing - About the Author(s)
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