ERG Theory of Motivation
To bring Maslows need hierarchy theory of motivation in synchronization with empirical research, Clayton Alderfer redefined it in his own terms. His rework is called as ERG theory of motivation. He recategorized Maslows hierarchy of needs into three simpler and broader classes of needs:
- Existence needs- These include need for basic material necessities. In short, it includes an individuals physiological and physical safety needs.
- Relatedness needs- These include the aspiration individuals have for maintaining significant interpersonal relationships (be it with family, peers or superiors), getting public fame and recognition. Maslows social needs and external component of esteem needs fall under this class of need.
- Growth needs- These include need for self-development and personal growth and advancement. Maslows self-actualization needs and intrinsic component of esteem needs fall under this category of need.
Difference between Maslow Need Hierarchy Theory and Alderfers ERG Theory
|ERG Theory states that at a given point of time, more than one need may be operational.|
|ERG Theory also shows that if the fulfillment of a higher-level need is subdued, there is an increase in desire for satisfying a lower-level need.|
|According to Maslow, an individual remains at a particular need level until that need is satisfied. While according to ERG theory, if a higher- level need aggravates, an individual may revert to increase the satisfaction of a lower- level need. This is called frustration- regression aspect of ERG theory. For instance- when growth need aggravates, then an individual might be motivated to accomplish the relatedness need and if there are issues in accomplishing relatedness needs, then he might be motivated by the existence needs. Thus, frustration/aggravation can result in regression to a lower-level need.|
|While Maslows need hierarchy theory is rigid as it assumes that the needs follow a specific and orderly hierarchy and unless a lower-level need is satisfied, an individual cannot proceed to the higher-level need; ERG Theory of motivation is very flexible as he perceived the needs as a range/variety rather than perceiving them as a hierarchy. According to Alderfer, an individual can work on growth needs even if his existence or relatedness needs remain unsatisfied. Thus, he gives explanation to the issue of starving artist who can struggle for growth even if he is hungry.|
Implications of the ERG Theory
Managers must understand that an employee has various needs that must be satisfied at the same time. According to the ERG theory, if the manager concentrates solely on one need at a time, this will not effectively motivate the employee. Also, the frustration- regression aspect of ERG Theory has an added effect on workplace motivation. For instance- if an employee is not provided with growth and advancement opportunities in an organization, he might revert to the relatedness need such as socializing needs and to meet those socializing needs, if the environment or circumstances do not permit, he might revert to the need for money to fulfill those socializing needs. The sooner the manager realizes and discovers this, the more immediate steps they will take to fulfill those needs which are frustrated until such time that the employee can again pursue growth.
|❮ Previous Article||Next Article ❯|
About the Author(s)
MSG team comprises experienced faculty and professionals who develop the content for the portal. We collectively refer to our team as - MSG Experts. To Know more, click on About Us.
- Motivation - Introduction
- Maslows Need Hierarchy Model
- Motivation Incentives
- Importance of Motivation
- Motivation and Morale
- Employee / Staff Motivation
- Workplace Motivation
- Self Motivation at Work
- Team Motivation
- Role of Motivation in OB
- Motivational Challenges
- Good Motivation System
- Classical Theories of Motivation
- Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory
- Herzbergs Theory of Motivation
- Theory X and Theory Y
- Modern Theories of Motivation
- ERG Theory
- McClellands Theory of Needs
- Goal Setting Theory
- Reinforcement Theory
- Equity Theory of Motivation
- Expectancy Theory of Motivation