Models of Transformational Change
An extensive review of the literature details would reveal that both practitioners and academics have explained transformational models with varied perspectives and focus on different points of views.
The Practitioner Models focus on senior management in an organization (Kanter, 1983 and Kotter, 1995). These models rely on opinions and also on illustrative anecdotes and offer recommendations or concrete solutions to the managers. The practitioner models often provide a suggestive model or a comprehensive plan of action for initiating change in an organization successfully.
According to Kotter (1996), Carroll and Hatakenaka (2001), for describing these models effectively, only two aspects are considered and that is success or failure. However, the Practitioner Models have been crticized for being too simplistic in its approach and pay a lot of attention to only the implementation process, but ignore various other crucial factors and their influence like political factors, organizational and environmental factors.
According to Miller, Greenwood and Hinings (1997), these models have been further criticized for the following reasons:
The Theoretical Models are developed on the basis of an extensive review of the research literature which analyze the key areas of transformational change. According to the proponents of the Theoretical Models, these models are more generic and comprehensive in nature than the Practitioner Models.
The Theoretical Models attempt to define the various types of change and equally describe the change characteristics. Burke and Litwin (1992) as well as Porras and Robertson (1992), proposed two different models of organizational change which focus on empirical research and practise.
Burke and Litwins Transformational model of change emphasize on the leadership behaviour and how leaders influence the behaviour of others by acting as role models in the organization.
Apart from this, the model equally explains the interrelationship between various factors in an organization such as strategy and mission, the external environment, overall organizational performance and the employees, leadership and organizational culture.
Similarly, Porras and Robertson focused more on the organizational work settings in their model. According to them, four major factors play a crucial role in the entire process of organizational change, and these factors are physical settings, social factors, organizational arrangements and technology. The outcomes of change are reflected in the form of changes in the individual and organizational behaviour.
In a nutshell, it would be more appropriate to describe that both the Theoretical and Practitioner models of change, analyze the internal and external environment which influence an organizational performance, highlight the outcomes or impact of change on key aspects, illustrate the expectations of change, the strategic issues involved in the entire process of change management and also the relevance of the process of communication across all levels in the entire change process.
Common Stages in Both Practitioner and Theoretical Models of Organizational Change:
- Kurt Lewins Change Management Model: The Planned Approach to Organizational Change
- Kotters 8 step Model of Change
- Contingency Model of Change Management
- Mintzberg and Quinns Model of Change
- Scott and Jaffe Change Model
- Anderson & Andersons Change Model
- McKinsey 7S Change Model
- Transformational Change & Change Management
- Organizational Change and Transition Management
- Determining Forces of Organizational Change
- Pre-Requisites for Successful Change Management
- Overcoming Barriers to Change
- Senior Managers as Barriers to Change
Authorship/Referencing - About the Author(s)
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