# What is Bond Valuation and How is it Calculated ?

### One of the Most Important Uses of Discounting

The present value of a bond is the sum of all the future cash flows that can be derived from it. In this sense, the valuation of bonds really becomes simple, isn’t it? All we need to do is find out the future stream of payments that are due on the bond and then find out their present value and we call find out what the valuation of that bond is. Well, this may be theoretically this simple.

However, in practical life estimating the parameters like discount rate which go into the calculation can be very difficult. Also, using different discount rates can cause us to come up with very different valuations. So, bond valuation really is a game about guessing what the future discount rate will be.

Now, let’s have a look at a theoretical example of bond valuation. Here is a step by step procedure of how the calculation must be done:

### Two Components

The calculation of the present value of the bond is done in two components. They are as follows:

The final step is to add the present value of the annuity as well as of the lump sum payment. This adds the present values of the interest payments as well as the principal payments. Hence, we get the present value of the bond.

**Example:**

Let’s find the present value of a bond whose face value is $100. Interest rate is 12% on an annual basis. The bond will make semi-annual interest payments for 10 years after which the principal has to be repaid and the bond expires.

### Present Value of Interest Payments

Number of periods = 20 periods (10 years, however the payment is semi-annual)

Discount Rate = 6% per period (Since we have doubled the number of periods, we need to cut the discount rate into half)

Payment: $6 per period (6% * face value of $100)

Therefore, present value of the annuity equals $68.82. This is the present value of the interest payments due.

### Present Value of Principal Due

The principal that needs to be repaid is $100. It needs to be repaid after 20 periods and the discount rate we are considering is 6% per period. The present value of the principal therefore is $31.18

To find the present value of the bond we need to add $68.82 + $31.18. In this case, this adds up to $100. Therefore the present value of the bond is $100.

It must, however be noted that in real life bond values swing based on the expectation of what the future discount rate will be like. It is not really the current discount rate which determines the bond value!

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### Authorship/Referencing - About the Author(s)

The article is Written By “Prachi Juneja” and Reviewed By **Management Study Guide Content Team**. MSG Content Team comprises experienced Faculty Member, Professionals and Subject Matter Experts. We are a **ISO 2001:2015 Certified Education Provider**. To Know more, click on About Us. The use of this material is free for learning and education purpose. Please reference authorship of content used, including link(s) to ManagementStudyGuide.com and the content page url.