Job Analysis - Job Description and Job Specification

Job analysis is primary tool in personnel management. In this method, a personnel manager tries to gather, synthesize and implement the information available regarding the workforce in the concern.

A personnel manager has to undertake job analysis so as to put right man on right job.

There are two outcomes of job analysis:

  1. Job description

  2. Job specification

The information collected under job analysis is:

  1. Nature of jobs required in a concern.
  2. Nature/ size of organizational structure.
  3. Type of people required to fit that structure.
  4. The relationship of the job with other jobs in the concern.
  5. Kind of qualifications and academic background required for jobs.
  6. Provision of physical condition to support the activities of the concern. For example- separate cabins for managers, special cabins for the supervisors, healthy condition for workers, adequate store room for store keeper.

Advantages of Job Analysis

  1. Job analysis helps the personnel manager at the time of recruitment and selection of right man on right job.
  2. It helps him to understand extent and scope of training required in that field.
  3. It helps in evaluating the job in which the worth of the job has to be evaluated.
  4. In those instances where smooth work force is required in concern.
  5. When he has to avoid overlapping of authority- responsibility relationship so that distortion in chain of command doesn’t exist.
  6. It also helps to chalk out the compensation plans for the employees.
  7. It also helps the personnel manager to undertake performance appraisal effectively in a concern.

A personnel manger carries analysis in two ways :

  1. Job description

  2. Job specification

  1. JOB DESCRIPTION is an organized factual statement of job contents in the form of duties and responsibilities of a specific job. The preparation of job description is very important before a vacancy is advertised. It tells in brief the nature and type of job. This type of document is descriptive in nature and it constitutes all those facts which are related to a job such as :

    1. Title/ Designation of job and location in the concern.
    2. The nature of duties and operations to be performed in that job.
    3. The nature of authority- responsibility relationships.
    4. Necessary qualifications that are required for job.
    5. Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.
    6. The provision of physical and working condition or the work environment required in performance of that job.

    Advantages of Job Description

    1. It helps the supervisors in assigning work to the subordinates so that he can guide and monitor their performances.
    2. It helps in recruitment and selection procedures.
    3. It assists in manpower planning.
    4. It is also helpful in performance appraisal.
    5. It is helpful in job evaluation in order to decide about rate of remuneration for a specific job.
    6. It also helps in chalking out training and development programmes.

  2. JOB SPECIFICATION is a statement which tells us minimum acceptable human qualities which helps to perform a job. Job specification translates the job description into human qualifications so that a job can be performed in a better manner. Job specification helps in hiring an appropriate person for an appropriate position. The contents are :

    1. Job title and designation
    2. Educational qualifications for that title
    3. Physical and other related attributes
    4. Physique and mental health
    5. Special attributes and abilities
    6. Maturity and dependability
    7. Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.

    Advantages of Job Specification

    1. It is helpful in preliminary screening in the selection procedure.
    2. It helps in giving due justification to each job.
    3. It also helps in designing training and development programmes.
    4. It helps the supervisors for counseling and monitoring performance of employees.
    5. It helps in job evaluation.
    6. It helps the management to take decisions regarding promotion, transfers and giving extra benefits to the employees.

From the above advantages, we can justify the importance of job analysis and it’s related products.

Both job description as well as job specification are important for personnel manager in personnel management function. Therefore, job analysis is considered to be the primary tool of personnel management.

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