There are mainly 4 methods by which we can collect data through the Survey Method
- Telephonic Interview
- Personal Interview
- Mail Interview
- Electronic Interview
Telephone Interviewing stands out as the best method for gathering quickly needed information. Responses are collected from the respondents by the researcher on telephone.
Advantages of Telephonic Interview
- It is very fast method of data collection.
- It has the advantage over Mail Questionnaire of permitting the interviewer to talk to one or more persons and to clarifying his questions if they are not understood.
- Response rate of telephone interviewing seems to be a little better than mail questionnaires
- The quality of information is better
- It is less costly method and there are less administration problems
Disadvantages of Telephonic Interview
- They cant handle interview which need props
- It cant handle unstructured interview
- It cant be used for those questions which requires long descriptive answers
- Respondents cannot be observed
- People are reluctant to disclose personal information on telephone
- People who dont have telephone facility cannot be approached
It is the most versatile of the all methods. They are used when props are required along with the verbal response non-verbal responses can also be observed.
Advantages of Personal Interview
- The person interviewed can ask more questions and can supplement the interview with personal observation.
- They are more flexible. Order of questions can be changed
- Knowledge of past and future is possible.
- In-depth research is possible.
- Verification of data from other sources is possible.
- The information obtained is very reliable and dependable and helps in establishing cause and effect relationship very early.
Disadvantages of Personal Interview
- It requires much more technical and administrative planning and supervision
- It is more expensive
- It is time consuming
- The accuracy of data is influenced by the interviewer
- A number of call banks may be required
- Some people are not approachable
Questionnaires are send to the respondents, they fill it up and send it back.
Advantages of Mail Survey
- It can reach all types of people.
- Response rate can be improved by offering certain incentives.
Disadvantages of Mail Survey
- It can not be used for unstructured study.
- It is costly.
- It requires established mailing list.
- It is time consuming.
- There is problem in case of complex questions.
Electronic interviewing is a process of recognizing and noting people, objects, occurances rather than asking for information. For example-When you go to store, you notice which product people like to use. The Universal Product Code (UPC) is also a method of observing what people are buying.
Advantages of Electronic Interview
- There is no relying on willingness or ability of respondent.
- The data is more accurate and objective.
Disadvantages of Electronic Interview
- Attitudes can not be observed.
- Those events which are of long duration can not be observed.
- There is observer bias. It is not purely objective.
- If the respondents know that they are being observed, their response can be biased.
- It is a costly method.
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