Job Analysis and Job Evaluation

Job analysis is the process of identifying and determining in detail contents of a particular job, thereby, clearly defining duties, responsibilities, accountabilities, and skills associated with the job. An important aspect of job analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the job, and not of the person. The process of job analysis results in two sets of data:

  • Job description - It is a written statement containing complete information about what all a job involves including job title, duties, tasks and responsibilities related to job, working conditions and hazards, reporting relationships, tools, machines and equipments to be used, and relationships with other positions.

  • Job specification - It provides particulars about capabilities that an individual should posses to perform the job efficiently. This includes educational qualification, experience, training, appropriate skills, knowledge, and abilities required to perform the job.

Job evaluation, on the other hand, specifies the relative value or worth of each job in an organization.

An organization undertakes the task of job analysis and evaluation for one or many of the following purposes:

  • Designing new organization and roles/jobs
  • Changing the organizational design or roles
  • Aligning roles and pay to organizational changes
  • Designing an effective organization
  • Defining interdependencies among different jobs
  • Clarifying accountabilities of jobs
  • Managing succession in organization
  • Reviewing the existing pay structure
  • Auditing legal compliance of pay policies
  • Implementing benchmark pay structures
  • Setting value-based pay policies

An organization can appoint internal HR Specialists or take service of an HR Consulting Firm to carry out the project of job analysis and evaluation with the aim of meeting the pre-determined purposes as mentioned above. However, external HR Consultants are beneficial for their expertise and independent views.

The systematic process of job analysis and evaluation followed by the firm includes:

  • Identifying concerned job.
  • Selecting/appointing a team or an individual to conduct project.
  • Defining main outcomes required.
  • Identifying main participants in the work process, including the ones in the job/role as well as reporting authorities.
  • Prepare a list of the participants, by name and position, in work analysis chart.
  • Keep track of work process, documents and other related information present with participants.
  • Information can also be gathered from previous job analysis and evaluation reports.
  • When job/role is new in organization, then information for the same may be obtained from other similar organizations having such job/role, and by understanding the reasons for creating that job/role from the concerned authority in the organization.
  • Analyze the collected information.
  • Make proposals regarding the new or changed job, role or pay structure.

The various methods by which an HR Consultant can obtain the information for job description and job specification are:

  • Observing the employee.
  • Carrying out individual/group interviews.
  • Having brainstorming sessions between groups of employees.
  • Performing desk audit by carefully examining documents used and tasks executed by employee.
  • Using questionnaires.
  • Asking employees to jot down all their tasks and duties as and when they perform them.
  • Interviewing employees for any critical incidents that may have occurred.
  • Keeping a video recording of employee on duty.
  • Reviewing all the necessary documents present in organization.
  • Referring to previous job analysis and evaluations done in organization.

Job evaluation is done by any of the following methods:

  • Points rating - Different levels are accorded to the various elements of jobs and then the points allocated to different levels are totaled to get point score of the jobs which forms the basis of pay structure.

  • Factor comparison - A comparison of various independent factors of jobs is done and points are given to each factor rank of individual job. These points are then totaled to rank the jobs.

  • Job ranking - Job is not broken into factors or elements, rather it is evaluated as a whole and is compared with other jobs to be ranked accordingly.

  • Paired comparison - Jobs are compared with each other and allocated points depending on being ‘greater, lesser or equal’. These points are added to create rank order of jobs.

The outputs of job analysis and evaluation are then aligned to the purpose of the project. This requires the HR Consultants to interpret the changes required in the existing job/pay and suggesting the improvements, as required. HR Consultants also advice on smooth incorporation of these changes to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of the organization.

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